The Orrin G. Hatch-Bob Goodlatte Music Modernization Act — On Thursday, the monumental bill was signed into law. Here, from the experts at the US Copyright Office, is a summary of what the bill does as well as what the next steps are in building a more modern and equitable music licensing system.

‘Truly a Historic Moment’: Music Business Reacts to Music Modernization Act Becoming Law — Billboard rounds up statements from the many artist and industry groups on the passage of the Music Modernization Act. The unity of support on the bill is not something you see every day.

The Marrakesh Treaty Implementation Act — The Music Modernization Act was not the only copyright bill to become law this week. On Wednesday, the Marrakesh Treaty Implementation Act was signed into law. Here, Acting Register of Copyrights Karyn Temple recalls the diplomatic conference that led to the conclusion of the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled, which requires countries to provide exceptions to copyright law to permit the creation and distribution, by authorized entities, of books in formats accessible to the blind and visually impaired, as well as allowing the cross-border exchange of such works. The Marrakesh Treaty Implementation Act amends U.S. law to bring the Treaty into effect.

MPAA Granted ‘Dynamic’ Pirate Site Blocking Order in Singapore — Andy at Torrentfreak reports, “With plenty of experience of sites around the world taking evasive counter-measures to avoid blocking, the injunction in Singapore allowed copyright holders to return to Court to request an amended order to block new domains and/or IP addresses. However, this model has proven cumbersome in the past so it’s no surprise the MPA(A) has now persuaded the Court to adopt a more streamlined approach. After highlighting that several of the blocked sites changed their domains to avoid blocking, the High Court has now handed down a ‘dynamic injunction’ which will allow the Hollywood studios to block any new methods deployed by the 53 sites covered by the earlier injunction.”

SCOTUS Will Decide What the Copyright Act Means by “Registered.” — “The two approaches are known as the ‘application’ approach and the ‘registration’ approach. The courts following the ‘application’ approach hold that a work is ‘registered’ and the copyright owner can sue an infringer as soon as the applicant files the application, deposits the copy of the work, and pays the fee. The courts following the ‘registration’ approach hold that a work is not ‘registered’ until the Copyright Office has acted on the application by approving or refusing it, and as such, the owner cannot file suit until the Copyright Office has acted.”

Unfree Agents — “When Spotify claims its company mission is ‘to have more than a million artists to be able to live off of their art,’ what they mean, by ‘making a living,’ is that these artists must bend to Spotify’s will. In the domain of Spotify, ‘making a living’ demands that an artist—often one of personal means—acquiesce to what streams well, to what feeds the algorithms, thereby sacrificing their creativity to the tastes of the playlists (think chill music, ‘viral artists,’ sticky pop songs, mood and activity specific music, etc.).”

Libido for Dystopia: A Response to “The Second Digital Disruption” – Part I — David Newhoff writes, “A paper published in August by Kal Raustiala of UCLA Law and Christopher Jon Sprigman of NYU Law proposes a new, generalized rationale for limiting copyright protections: ‘data-driven authorship.’ Titled The Second Digital Disruption: Data, Algorithms and Authorship in the 21st Century, the central thesis hinges on the assumption that because authors of creative works will soon able to use Big Data to predict a greater likelihood of market success for a given work, this reduces the investment risk in producing that work, which in turn recommends limiting copyright protections.” Also see Part II.

American Chemical Society (ACS) and Elsevier File Copyright Infringement Lawsuit in U.S. vs. ResearchGate — “ResearchGate’s infringing activity is no accident. Infringing copies of PJAs are a cornerstone to ResearchGate’s growth strategy. ResearchGate deliberately utilizes the infringing copies to grow the traffic to its website, its base of registered users, its digital content, and its revenues and investment from venture capital.”

Why I Left My Big Fancy Tech Job and Wrote a Book — “You can’t tell your advertisers that you can target users down to the tiniest pixel but then throw your hands up before the politicians and say your machines can’t figure out if bad actors are using your platform. You can’t buy up a big bookstore and then a big diaper store and a big pet supply store and, finally, a big grocery store, national newspaper, and rocket ship and then act surprised when people start wondering if maybe you’re a bit too powerful. And you can’t really claim that you’re building for everyone in the world when your own workforce doesn’t remotely resemble the outside world.”

So, a few things happened in copyright this week.

The Music Modernization Act: An Industry Speaking With One Voice (Guest Column) — On Tuesday, the House passed H.R. 1551, the Hatch-Goodlatte Music Modernization Act, meaning the bill just needs the president’s signature to become law. In this piece, RIAA’s Mitch Glazier reflects on how the community overcame the many challenges facing the pivotal reform.

Why US creators urgently need Congress to support the CASE Act — Also this week, the House Judiciary Committee held a hearing to consider H.R. 3945, the CASE Act, which would create a copyright small claims process as a quicker and more cost effective alternative to federal litigation. Gabrielle Carteris, president of SAG-AFTRA, writes in support of the bill.

Also this week: Senate Rules Committee held a hearing on the Register of Copyrights Selection and Accountability Act; the House passed the Marrakesh Treaty Implementing Legislation; and Nadler, Hatch, Leahy, and Collins introduced the ART Act, which would establish a resale royalty right for certain visual artists.

Copyright Act needs update for 21st century — A look at copyright reform efforts in New Zealand. “We often hear advocates for the fair use approach claiming a connection between fair use and innovation. Interesting. This suggests that, because New Zealand doesn’t have fair use, we’re not a country of innovators, which is simply not true. A connection between fair use and innovation is tenuous at best and disingenuous at worst. If you hear it during the debate that takes place around the review of our laws, ask yourself ‘who’s looking to benefit?’. The answer won’t be a creator.”

EU questioning companies over Amazon copycat products: report — File under “Internet platforms empower users”: “European regulators probing Amazon over antitrust concerns are reportedly asking smaller merchants whether the internet giant has been copying their products and selling them under its own brand.”

Senate Passes Music Modernization Act — Even as late as Tuesday afternoon, the fate of the landmark music legislation was still uncertain, but a last-minute compromise got the bill onto the Senate floor, where it passed by a unanimous voice vote Tuesday evening. For more on those pivotal hours, see Music Modernization Act Passed Thanks to Last-Minute SiriusXM Compromise: Sources and Inside the Music Modernization Act’s Last-Minute Negotiations With SiriusXM. Also see Industry Reacts To Music Modernization Act Passage and, for the perspective of one of the many individual creators and artists who have been key to moving the bill forward, We Did It. The bill must still go back through the House, which is anticipated to occur soon and without any obstacles, before being signed into law. And then the real fun begins.

In Honor of Constitution Day: Article 1, Section 8, Clause 8 and the Pursuit of Happiness — Neil Turkewitz writes, “Let’s use this opportunity of celebrating the Constitution to cast off the divisive rhetoric, and to celebrate the arts. The arts not only give meaning to life, but fuel the economy.”

Guest Post: Think Sci-Hub is Just Downloading PDFs? Think Again — “Let me be clear: Sci-Hub is not just stealing PDFs. They’re phishing, they’re spamming, they’re hacking, they’re password-cracking, and basically doing anything to find personal credentials to get into academic institutions. While illegal access to published content is the most obvious target, this is just the tip of an iceberg concealing underlying efforts to steal multiple streams of personal and research data from the world’s academic institutions.”

Gillian Welch on How ‘Everything Is Free’ Became a Modern Classic in the Streaming Era — A wonderful interview from singer-songwriter Welch, who reflects on the tune she penned during the Napster era, which is experiencing a resurgence 18 years later. Most recently, the tune has been covered by artists such as Father John Misty and Courtney Barnett.

Musical instrument goes flat in presence of adulterated medicine — Fascinating. “The challenge with making a generic test for contamination is that all sorts of things can end up in food and medicine. The key to this new idea is that you don’t necessarily need to know what has been added, only that it is different from the standard formulation. In almost all cases, changing the formulation changes the density of a liquid. A sensitive mass sensor, then, should be able to detect medicines that have not been produced properly. … In the developing world especially, hospitals and individuals cannot shell out thousands of dollars for highly sensitive mass balances. They do, however, have access to musical instruments.”

EU approves copyright directive blasted by big tech — “With the vote, MEPs can now start negotiations with the European Council representing the 28 member states which already reached a compromise on the issue in May. These closed-door discussions, which also include the European Commission, are known in EU jargon as ‘trilogues’ and can take several months before any compromise is put to a fresh vote.”

RIAA President Mitch Glazier Responds to SiriusXM’s Music Modernization Act Complaints: ‘Give Me a Break’ — Glazier writes, “The Music Modernization Act is based on two simple principles – streamline the licensing system and work towards fair-market-value based rules for creators. It’s a compromise, like most big packages of legislation, in which every segment of the industry had to give in some places in order to get reforms they cared about more in others. But that kind of ‘give a little get a little’ deal isn’t of much interest to SiriusXM, which has instead focused its efforts on special carve-outs and legal chicanery such as withholding royalties from pre-72 artists until it was sued.”

FCJ refers case regarding YouTube’s liability for damages to the CJEU — The question is whether the video streaming giant can be liable for direct liability. One to watch.

The YouTube stars heading for burnout: ‘The most fun job imaginable became deeply bleak’ — “Algorithm-led content curation makes creators feel disposable, challenging them to churn out videos in the knowledge that there are younger, fresher people waiting in the wings to replace them. For YouTubers who use their daily lives as raw material for their videos, there is added pressure, as the traditional barriers between personal and professional life are irreparably eroded.”

What it takes to be a stunt person (video) — “Monique Ganderton has been fighting and falling in films and TV for the past 15 years as a stunt performer. She was most recently a stunt double for Charlize Theron and named as Marvel’s first female stunt coordinator. Ganderton tells us how the action comes to life in movies.”

NAFTA Emails Flood Gov’t — In the final stretches of NAFTA negotiations, opponents of modern copyright rules in trade agreements are pulling out all stops. From Canada, Blacklock‘s reports, “The Department of Foreign Affairs says it’s received tens of thousands of emails over NAFTA talks. About half originated from Open Media, an advocacy group one critic accused of using auto-email forms easily manipulated to manufacture a ‘grassroots backlash’.”

The Shaming of Geoffrey Owens and the Inability to see Actors as Laborers, Too — From Michael Schulman of the New Yorker: “As egregious as the story was, it was a fitting subject going into Labor Day weekend. We don’t tend to think of actors as laborers, despite the robust unions that represent them—Actors’ Equity and SAG-AFTRA.”

Opinon: Artists make magic for us, let’s be sure they’re all compensated — Tommy Thayer, lead guitarist for KISS, writes in support of the Music Modernization Act, which as of this morning has over 70 cosponsors in the Senate. Says Thayer, “It is critical that the act pass through the Senate without obstacle or delay. I would ask our Senators and everyone else considering this act to understand that for every hour a musician stands on stage in front of fans, there are thousands of hours spent practicing and rehearsing. Every hit song heard on the radio or streaming represents countless hours of work, creative effort and even failure before finding that perfect lyric, melody or guitar riff. It’s finally time to put a law in place ensuring that all music creators and recording artists – past, present and future – are fairly compensated for the music (and the magic) that we all continue to enjoy.”

Online immunities for Internet platforms under NAFTA — “While it is not objectionable for Internet platforms to have some immunity for damage claims where they act as passive, neutral intermediaries and are not aware and have no reason to be aware that their actions are causing damages, it would be a major extension of the law and contrary to the public interest to grant Internet platforms the types of immunities provided for by the CDA. In fact, even Google and other Internet platforms have recently acknowledged that such protection is not required for the Internet to flourish.”

With Canada’s economic future in the balance, NAFTA negotiators may be talking about Super Bowl ads — “Canadians, it seems, were desperate to see those much-hyped American advertisements during the Super Bowl telecast, and the CRTC obliged. Now the agency’s unusual decision to ban the substitution of Canadian ads during the game — and other issues around Canada’s sweeping regulation of culture — may be holding up down-to-the-wire NAFTA negotiations.”

New Balance is watching you — “On September 6, the first day of New York Fashion Week, the sportswear giant will set up a booth in Soho with cameras facing out in every direction, scanning the hoards of people walking the streets of the city…The company has worked with the marketing agency VML to develop technology specifically designed to identify people who don’t look like everybody else.”

Appeals Court Revives Lawsuit Against CBS over Pre-1972 Sound Recordings — The Ninth Circuit reverses a 2016 district court decision involving the copyrightability of remastered sound recordings in an opinion that delves deeply into the question of when a derivative work evinces enough originality to be independently protected.

NAFTA’s IP Protections Should Reflect Today’s Global Economy — The U.S. Chamber’s Global Innovation Policy Center reports, “Negotiations to modernize the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) offer an opportunity to harmonize and strengthen IP standards across North America. A more effective IP chapter in an updated NAFTA agreement will support the growth of innovative and creative industries, create jobs, and stimulate economic competitiveness across the continent. While the IP standards included in the existing NAFTA agreement were considered comprehensive when the agreement was originally negotiated, the rapid evolution of biomedical and technological innovation and the growth of the digital economy require a modernized 21st century IP framework to adequately protect the high-risk, high-capital investments of innovators and creators across North America.”

Why Netflix Dramas Sag Midseason — and How They’re Fixing It — An interesting interview with the streaming service’s VP of original programming Cindy Holland, which, as the headline suggests, touches on an issue that many viewers have observed. But as Holland points out, no matter how much Netflix may change the viewing experience, or how much data it may be able to harvest from its customers, it doesn’t change the need for good storytellers. As Holland says here, “Once we’ve had the initial conversation with the creators about what they wanna make, and we say yes, we’re pretty clear that it’s really their vision.”

Google data collection research — A study finds the tech giant’s data collection is more pervasive than users probably realise, a major part of it occurs without direct involvement with Google services, and much of the anonymized data collected through passive means can still be associated with specific users. In return, we get to see more ads for products we just looked at.

How Aretha Franklin’s ‘Respect’ Became a Battle Cry for Musicians Seeking Royalties — The NY Times‘ Ben Sisario writes, “It was Aretha Franklin’s first No. 1 hit, the cry of empowerment that has defined her for generations: ‘Respect.’ But for the roughly seven million times the song has been played on American radio stations, she was paid nothing.”

How Aretha Franklin Earned ‘Respect’ by Flipping Gender Roles — “Aretha Franklin’s ‘Respect’ is one of the most iconic songs of all time. When it was released in 1967, it topped both the Billboard Pop Singles and Black Singles charts. In 1968, it earned two Grammys: ‘Best Rhythm & Blues Recording’ and ‘Best Rhythm & Blues Solo Vocal Performance, Female.’ It was adopted as a soundtrack by both the civil rights and feminist movements. And in 2002, the Library of Congress added it to the National Recording Registry. This last distinction marks the song as ‘culturally, historically, or aesthetically important’ for eternity. Enough said.”

Aretha Franklin dead at 76: SiriusXM pays tribute to the ‘Queen of Soul’ — Here’s the best way SiriusXM can pay tribute to Franklin: pay her the same royalties that artists who recorded after 1972 get. There is no reason artists like Franklin should be prevented from sharing in the incredible value that they created. SiriusXM is one of the few companies standing in the way of the Senate passing the Music Modernization Act, which in part will correct this bad policy and injustice.

Citi’s Music Industry Report, Dissected: What the Financial Giant Gets Right and (Very) Wrong — Rob Levine tears into a recent report released by financial institution Citi, which gets a good deal wrong about the music industry.

The Real Impact of Getting Rid of the Paramount Consent Decrees — Eriq Gardner reports, “There’s a good argument to be made that the U.S. Supreme Court’s 1948 decision in United States v. Paramount Pictures is the most misconstrued legal decision ever. The case forever changed Hollywood — but it did not ban studios from owning theaters. The misconception that there is a ban in place is important in light of the Department of Justice announcement Aug. 2 that the government would review the Paramount Consent Decrees. No matter what happens, don’t expect Disney to make a bid for AMC or Regal for the simple reason that Disney could have acquired either theater giant anytime during the past few decades and hasn’t seen any need to get into the popcorn business. What, then, would be the ramifications for Hollywood of ending the Paramount Decrees?”

This week marked the 8th anniversary of this site. 🎉

Carol Kaye: Rock’s Most Prolific Session Musician — I sheepishly admit that until this video, I was unaware of Carol Kaye. If you’re in the same boat, drop everything until you’ve watched this.

Musicians Line Up In Opposition To Wyden’s Royalty Bill — “Music industry professionals are lobbying Sen. Ron Wyden, D-Ore., to stand down and allow a bill updating music rights laws to pass. Musicians and industry groups have worked for years to update how music royalties are paid in the digital era. The resulting Music Modernization Act passed the House unanimously in May.”

Taking Common-Law Copyright for Pre-1972 Sound Recordings Seriously — Zvi Rosen discusses his recently published and highly recommended article on “Common-Law Copyright.” Rosen writes, “[W]e’ve really failed to think through the doctrinal consequences of using common-law copyright to protect older sound recordings, or even really what common-law copyright is. In my article I believe I document pretty clearly just how different common-law copyright is from statutory copyright, and how we’ve fairly to take it seriously as a doctrine and ended up with a muddle of unpredictability and confusion.”

Brexit and Copyright: An Update on the Road to D-Day — Hugh Stephens takes a look at what changes Britain can expect to copyright law in that country should it leave the European Union. “In the area of copyright, these impacts–while not negligible–are relatively minor compared to some of the adjustments that other sectors of the economy will have to face.”

CJEU rules that unauthorized re-posting of protected content may be an infringement — A summary of the opinion from the Court of Justice of the European Union, which was asked, “Does the inclusion of a work — which is freely accessible to all internet users on a third-party website with the consent of the copyright holder — on a person’s own publicly accessible website constitute a making available of that work to the public within the meaning of Article 3(1) of [Directive 2001/29] if the work is first copied onto a server and is uploaded from there to that person’s own website?” The CJEU answered yes.

SESAC strikes deal with songwriters, publishers putting Music Modernization Act back on track — The bill, which passed the House unanimously in April and reported favorably out of the Senate Judiciary Committee (also unanimously) in June, is now within striking distance of a Senate vote and getting signed into law.

Gerda Taro: A Female War Photographer in the Spotlight — “Eighty-one years after Gerda Taro was killed while covering the Spanish Civil War, the pioneering photojournalist is finally getting the recognition she deserves, in the most contemporary way possible: On her birthday, August 1, she is the subject of a Google Doodle. While she has long been recognized as one of the first female photographers to cover conflicts from the front lines, Taro’s images from the Spanish Civil War remained relatively unknown until they were rediscovered in 2007. Here, a look back at the forgotten photographer who paved the way for countless other women in her field.”

9th Circuit Rejects Courts’ “One Size Fits All” Bit Torrent Ruling — Stephen Carlisle looks at last week’s Ninth Circuit opinion in Glacier Films (USA) Inc. v. Turchin, an infringement lawsuit brought by a filmmaker against an individual alleged to have illegally downloaded the film. The lower court had declined to award attorneys fees to the filmmaker after the parties agreed to a settlement, a decision the Ninth Circuit held was incorrect.

Sony Taken to Court Over ‘Slender Man’ Threats — Slender Man, the most spookiest of memes, finds himself at the center of a copyright dispute. Unlike some memes, Slender Man has a clear providence: he was created by Eric Knudsen in 2009. The issue here, however, has to do with alleged similarities between Slender Man, the subject of a spooky movie being developed by Sony’s Screen Gems, and the monster appearing in the film Flay, produced by Phame Factory. Phame Factory filed a declaratory judgment action against Sony following a series of cease and desist letters from Sony alleging similarities between the two spooky monsters.